Bylaws of Free IT Athens, Inc.

Adopted April 17, 2010

ARTICLE I – Offices

Section 1. Principal Office. The principal office of the corporation is located in the Athens-Clarke County, State of Georgia.

Section 2. Change of Address. The Board of Directors may change the principal office from one location to another within the named county by noting the changed address and effective date below, and such changes of address shall not be deemed, nor require, an amendment of these bylaws.

Address: 2465 Jefferson Rd. Athens, Ga.
Athens, GA 30607

Dated: October 28 2016

Section 3. Other Offices. Free I.T. Athens may also have offices at such other places within or without its state of incorporation, where it is qualified to do business, as its business and activities may require, and as the board of directors may from time to time, designate.

ARTICLE II – Nonprofit Purposes

Section 1. IRC Section 501(c)(3) Purposes. This corporation is organized exclusively for one or more of the purposes as specified in Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, including, for such purposes, the making of distributions to organizations that qualify as exempt organizations under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Section 2. Specific Objectives and Purposes. The specific objectives and purposes of this corporation shall be to contribute charitable and educational assistance to the public by providing access to information technology resources and promoting free software and open technology.

ARTICLE III – Board of Directors

Section 1. Number. The corporation shall have no less than 3 and no more than 11 directors, the exact number to be fixed by resolution of the board. Collectively they shall be known as the Board of Directors.

Section 2. Qualifications. Directors shall be of the age of majority in this state.

Section 3. Powers. Subject to the provision of the laws of this state and any limits in the articles of incorporation and these bylaws relating to action required or permitted to be taken or approved by the members of this corporation, the activities and affairs of this corporation shall be conducted and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the Board of Directors.

Section 4. Duties. It shall be the duty of the Directors to:

  1. Perform all duties imposed on them collectively or individually by law, by the articles of incorporation, or by these bylaws.

  2. Appoint and remove, employ and discharge, and, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, prescribe the duties and fix the compensation, if any, of all officers, agents, and employees of the corporation.

  3. Supervise all officers, agents and employees of the corporation to assure that their duties are performed properly.

  4. Meet at such times and places as required by these bylaws.

  5. Register their mailing and e-mail addresses with the secretary of the corporation, and notices of meetings mailed or emailed to them at such addresses shall be valid notices thereof.

Section 5. Term of Office. Each director shall hold office for a period of one year and until his or her successor is elected and qualifies.

Amendment dated: November, 2012

Section 6. Compensation. Directors shall serve without compensation except that a reasonable fee may be paid to directors for attending regular and special meetings of the board. In addition, they shall be allowed reasonable advancement or reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their duties.

Section 7. Place of Meetings. Meetings shall be held at the principal office of the corporation unless otherwise provided by the board or at such other place as may be designated from time to time by resolution of the board of directors.

Section 8. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of directors shall be held on the third Sunday of the month at 11:30 A.M., unless such day falls on a legal holiday, in which event the regular meeting shall be held at the same hour and place on the next Sunday.

Amendment dated: August 20, 2014

Section 9. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the board of directors may be called by the chairperson of the board, the president, the vice president, the secretary, by any two directors, or, if different, by the persons specifically authorized by the laws of the state to call special meetings of the board. Such meetings shall be held at the principal office of the corporation or, if different, at the place designated by the person or persons calling the special meetings.

Section 10. Executive. An executive session of the board may be called under the following circumstances: (a) on the advice of counsel, (b) to discuss current pending legal matters, (c) to consult with the auditors and compensation consultants, (d) to discuss or act on personnel issues, or (e) to address such other matters as the board deems appropriate.  The board may upon majority vote of the directors, call an executive session at any time during a regular meeting or a special meeting, and/or reserve for itself an agenda item or, in the case of a special meeting, an entire meeting, for the purpose(s) of discussing or acting on matters which meet any of the aforementioned circumstances.  The notice requirements for special meetings apply regardless of whether or not said meetings are executive sessions.

While in executive session, only board members and individuals invited by the board may be present.  Board members may discuss the business conducted in an executive session only with other board members including or not including persons present in the executive session by invitation of the board, and others upon advice of counsel. Those present will be reminded that the executive session deliberations and minutes are confidential.

Section 11. Notice of Meetings. Unless otherwise provided by the articles of incorporation, these bylaws, of provisions of law, the following provisions shall govern the giving of notice for meetings of the board of directors.

  1. Regular meetings: A week’s notice need be given by e-mail of any regular meeting of the Board of Directors.

  2. Special meetings: At least one week prior notice shall be given by the Secretary of the corporation to each director of each special meeting of the board. Such notice may be oral or written, may be given personally, by mail, by e-mail, or by telephone and shall state the place, date, and time of the meeting and the matters proposed to be acted upon at the meeting.

  3. Waiver of Notic:e: Whenever any notice of a meeting is required to be given to any director of this corporation under provisions of the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or the law of this state, a waiver of notice in writing signed by the director, whether before or after the time of the meeting, shall be equivalent to the giving of such notice.

Section 12. Quorum for Meetings. A quorum shall consist of a majority of the members of the Board of Directors.

Except as otherwise provided under the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or provisions of law, no business shall be considered by the Board at any meeting at which the required quorum is not present, and the only motion which the President shall entertain at such meeting is a motion to adjourn.

Section 13. Majority Action as Board Action. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present is the act of the Board of Directors, unless the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or provisions of law require a greater percentage or different voting rules for approval of a matter by the board.

Section 14. Conduct of Meetings. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the President of the Board, or, if no such person has been so designated or, in his or her absence, the President of the corporation or, in his or her absence, by the Vice President of the corporation, or in the absence of each of these persons, by a President chosen by a majority of the directors present at the meeting. The Secretary of the corporation shall act as secretary of all meetings of the board, provided that, in his or her absence, the presiding officer shall appoint another person to act as Secretary of the Meeting.

Meetings shall be governed by such procedures as may be approved from time to time by the Board of Directors, insofar as such rules are not inconsistent with or in conflict with the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or with provisions of law.

Section 15. Vacancies. Vacancies on the Board of Directors shall exist (1) on the death, resignation or removal of any director, and (2) whenever the number of authorized directors is increased.

Any Director may resign effective upon giving written notice to the President of the Board, the Secretary, or the Board of Directors, unless the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of such resignation. No Director may resign if the corporation would then be left without a duly elected Director or directors in charge of its affairs, except upon notice to the Office of the Attorney General or other appropriate agency of this state.

Directors may be removed from office, with or without cause, as permitted by and in accordance with the laws of this state.

Unless otherwise prohibited by the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws or provisions of law, vacancies on the board may be filled by approval of the Board of Directors. If the number of directors then in office is less than a quorum, a vacancy on the board may be filled by approval of a majority of the Directors then in office or by a sole remaining Director. A person elected to fill a vacancy on the board shall hold office until the next election of the Board of Directors or until his or her death, resignation or removal from office.

Section 16. Non-liability of Directors. The Directors shall not be personally liable for the debts, liabilities, or other obligations of the corporation.

Section 17. Indemnification by Corporation of Directors and Officers. The Directors and Officers of the corporation shall be indemnified by the corporation to the fullest extent permissible under the laws of this state.

Section 18. Insurance for Corporate Agents. Except as may be otherwise provided under provisions of law, the Board of Directors may adopt a resolution authorizing the purchase and maintenance of insurance on behalf of any agent of the corporation (including a Director, Officer, Employee or other Agent of the corporation) against liabilities asserted against or incurred by the agent in such capacity or arising out of the agent’s status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the agent against such liability under the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws or provisions of law.

ARTICLE IV – Officers

Section 1. Designation of Officers. The officers of the corporation shall be a President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. The corporation may also have one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers, and other such officers with such titles as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors.

An individual may hold two or more offices simultaneously.

Section 2. Qualifications. Any person may serve as officer of this corporation.

Section 3. Election and Term of Office. Officers shall be elected by the Board of Directors, at any time, and each officer shall hold office until he or she resigns or is removed or is otherwise disqualified to serve, or until his or her successor shall be elected and qualified, whichever occurs first.

Section 4. Removal and Resignation. Any Officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board of Directors, at any time. Any Officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Board of Directors or to the President or Secretary of the corporation. Any such resignation shall take effect at the date of receipt of such notice or at any later date specified therein, and, unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. The above provisions of this Section shall be superseded by any conflicting terms of a contract which has been approved or ratified by the Board of Directors relating to the employment of any officer of the corporation.

Section 5. Vacancies. Any vacancy caused by the death, resignation, removal, disqualification, or otherwise, of any officer shall be filled by the Board of Directors. In the event of a vacancy in any office other than that of President, such vacancy may be filled temporarily by appointment by the President until such time as the Board of Directors shall fill the vacancy. Vacancies occurring in offices of officers appointed at the discretion of the board may or may not be filled as the board shall determine.

Section 6. Duties of President. The President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, supervise and control the affairs of the corporation and the activities of the officers. He or she shall perform all duties incident to his or her office and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors. Unless another person is specifically appointed as President of the Board of Directors, he or she shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors. If applicable, the President shall preside at all meetings of the members. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, by the Articles of Incorporation or by these Bylaws, he or she shall, in the name of the corporation, execute such deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts, checks, or other instruments which may from time to time be authorized by the Board of Directors.

Section 8. Duties of Vice-President.  In the absence of the President, or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, the Vice President shall perform all the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions on, the President. The Vice President shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, or as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors.

Section 9. Duties of Secretary. The Secretary shall:

Certify and keep at the principal office of the corporation the original, or a copy, of these Bylaws as amended or otherwise altered to date.  Keep a physical or electronic record of minutes of all meetings of the directors, and, if applicable, meetings of committees of directors, recording therein the time and place of holding, whether regular or special, how called, how notice thereof was given, the names of those present or represented at the meeting, and the proceedings thereof.  See that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws or as required by law.

Be custodian of the records and of the seal of the corporation and affix the seal, as authorized by law or the provisions of these Bylaws, to duly executed documents of the corporation.  Exhibit at all reasonable times to any director of the corporation, or to his or her agent or attorney, on request therefor, the Bylaws and the minutes of the proceedings of the directors of the corporation.

In general, perform all duties incident to the office of Secretary and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her from time to time by the Board of Directors.

Section 10. Duties of Treasurer. The Treasurer shall:

Have charge and custody of, and be responsible for, all funds and securities of the corporation, and deposit all such funds in the name of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as shall be selected by the Board of Directors.
Receive, and give receipt for, monies due and payable to the corporation from any source whatsoever.

Disburse, or cause to be disbursed, the funds of the corporation as may be directed by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements.  Keep and maintain adequate and correct accounts of the corporation’s properties and business transactions, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains and losses.  Exhibit at all reasonable times the books of account and financial records to any director of the corporation, or to his or her agent or attorney, on request therefor.  Render to the President and directors, whenever requested, an account of any or all of his or her transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation.

Prepare, or cause to be prepared, and certify, or cause to be certified, the financial statements to be included in any required reports.  In general, perform all duties incident to the office of Treasurer and such other duties as may be required by law, by the Articles of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her from time to time by the Board of Directors.

Section 12. Compensation. The salaries of the Officers, if any, shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. In all cases, any salaries received by Officers of this corporation shall be reasonable and given in return for services actually rendered to or for the corporation.

Article V – Committees

Section 1. Executive Committee. The Board of Directors may, by majority vote of its members, designate an Executive Committee consisting of two or more board members and may delegate to such committee the powers and authority of the board in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, to the extent permitted, and except as may otherwise be provided, by provisions of law.

By a majority vote of its members, the board may at any time revoke or modify any or all of the Executive Committee authority so delegated, increase or decrease but not below two the number of the members of the Executive Committee and fill vacancies on the Executive Committee from the members of the board. The Executive Committee shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings, cause them to be filed with the corporate records and report the same to the board from time to time as the board may require.

Section 2. Other Committees. The corporation shall have such other committees as may from time to time be designated by resolution of the Board of Directors. These committees may consist of persons who are also not members of the board and shall act in an advisory capacity to the board.

Section 3. Meetings and Action of Committees. Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, noticed, held and taken in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws concerning meetings of the Board of Directors, with such changes in the context of such Bylaw provisions as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board of Directors and its members, except that the time for regular and special meetings of committees may be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors or by the committee. The Board of Directors may also adopt rules and regulations pertaining to the conduct of meetings of committees to the extent that such rules and regulations are not inconsistent with the provisions of these Bylaws.

ARTICLE VI – Execution of Instruments, Deposits and Funds

Section 1. Execution of Instruments. The Board of Directors, except as otherwise provided by these Bylaws, may by resolution authorize any officer or agent of the corporation to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable monetarily for any purpose or for any amount.

Section 2. Checks and Notes. Except as otherwise specifically determined by resolution of the Board of Directors, or as otherwise required by law, checks, drafts, promissory notes, orders for the payment of money and other evidence of indebtedness of the corporation shall be signed by the treasurer.

Section 3. Deposits. All funds of the corporation shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositories as the Board of Directors may select.

Section 4. Gifts. The Board of Directors may accept on behalf of the corporation any contribution, gift, bequest or devise for the nonprofit purposes of this corporation.

ARTICLE VII – Corporate Records, Reports and Seal

Section 1. Maintenance of Corporate Records. The corporation shall keep either in physical or electronic form:

  1. Minutes of all meetings of directors, committees of the board, indicating the time and place of holding such meetings, whether regular or special, how called, the notice given and the names of those present and the proceedings thereof;

  2. Adequate and correct books and records of accounts, including accounts of its properties and business transactions and accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains and losses;

  3. A record of its members indicating their names and addresses and, if applicable, the class of membership held by each member and the termination date of any membership;

  4. A copy of the corporation’s Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws as amended to date.

Section 2. Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may adopt, use and at will alter, a corporate seal. Failure to affix the seal to corporate instruments, however, shall not affect the validity of any such instrument.

Section 3. Directors’ Inspection Rights. Every director shall have the absolute right at any reasonable time to inspect and copy all books, records and documents of every kind and to inspect the physical properties of the corporation and shall have such other rights to inspect the books, records and properties of this corporation as may be required under the Articles of Incorporation, other provisions of these Bylaws and provisions of law.

Section 4. Members’ Inspection Rights. Each and every member shall have the following inspection rights, for a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a member:

  1. To inspect and copy the record of all Members’ names, addresses and voting rights, at reasonable times, upon written demand on the Secretary of the corporation, which demand shall state the purpose for which the inspection rights are requested.

  2. To obtain from the Secretary of the corporation, upon written demand on, and payment of a reasonable charge to, the Secretary of the corporation, a list of the names, addresses and voting rights of those members entitled to vote for the election of Directors as of the most recent record date for which the list has been compiled or as of the date specified by the member subsequent to the date of demand. The demand shall state the purpose for which the list is requested. The membership list shall be made within a reasonable time after the demand is received by the Secretary of the corporation or after the date specified therein as of which the list is to be compiled.

  3. To inspect at any reasonable time the books, records, or minutes of proceedings of the members or of the board or committees of the board, upon written demand on the Secretary of the corporation by the member, for a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interests as a member.

Members shall have such other rights to inspect the books, records and properties of this corporation as may be required under the articles of Incorporation, other provisions of these Bylaws, and provisions of law.

Section 5. Right to Copy and Make Extracts. Any inspection under the provisions of this Article may be made in person or by agent or attorney and the right to inspection shall include the right to copy and make extracts.

Section 6. Periodic Report. The board shall cause any annual or periodic report required under law to be prepared and delivered to an office of this state or to the members of this corporation to be so prepared and delivered within the time limits set by law.

Article VIII – IRC 501(c)(3) Tax Exemption Provisions

Section 1. Limitations on Activities. No substantial part of the activities of this corporation shall be carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation (except as otherwise provided by Section 501(h) of the Internal Revenue Code), and this corporation shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements), any political campaign on behalf of, or in opposition to, any candidate for public office.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of these Bylaws, this corporation shall not carry on any activities not permitted to be carried on (a) by a corporation exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or (b) by a corporation, contributions to which are deductible under Section 170(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Section 2. Prohibition Against Private Inurement. No part of the net earnings of this corporation shall inure to the benefit of, or be distributable to, its members, directors or trustees, officers or other private persons, except that the corporation shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payments and distributions in furtherance of the purposes of this corporation.

 Section 3. Distribution of Assets. Upon the dissolution of this corporation, its assets remaining after payment, or provision for payment, of all debts and liabilities of this corporation shall be distributed for one or more exempt purposes within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code or shall be distributed to the federal government, or to a state or local government, for a public purpose. Such distribution shall be made in accordance with all applicable provisions of the laws of the State of Georgia.

Section 4. Private Foundation Requirements and Restrictions. In any taxable year in which this corporation is a private foundation as described in Section 509(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, the corporation 1) shall distribute its income for said period at such time and manner as not to subject it to tax under Section 4942 of the Internal Revenue Code; 2) shall not engage in any act of self-dealing as defined in Section 4941(d) of the Internal Revenue Code; 3) shall not retain any excess business holdings as defined in Section 4943(c) of the Internal Revenue Code; 4) shall not make any investments in such manner as to subject the corporation to tax under Section 4944 of the Internal Revenue Code; and 5) shall not make any taxable expenditures as defined in Section 4945(d) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Article IX – Amendment of Bylaws

Section 1. Amendment. Subject to the power of the members of this corporation to adopt, amend, or repeal the bylaws of this corporation and except as may otherwise be specified under provision of law, these Bylaws, or any of them, may be altered, amended or repealed and new Bylaws adopted by approval of the Board of Directors.

Article X – Construction and Terms

If there is any conflict between the provisions of these Bylaws and the Articles of Incorporation of this corporation, the provisions of the Articles of Incorporation shall govern.

Should any of the provisions or portions of these Bylaws be held unenforceable or invalid for any reason, the remaining provisions and portions of these Bylaws shall be unaffected by such holding.

All references in these Bylaws to the Articles of Incorporation shall be to the Articles of Incorporation for this corporation filed with an office of this state and used to establish the legal existence of this corporation.

All references in these Bylaws to a section or sections of the Internal Revenue Code shall be to such sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as amended from time to time, or to corresponding provisions of any future tax code.

Article XI – Members

Section 1. Determination and Rights of Members. The corporation shall have only one class of members. No member shall hold more than one membership in the corporation. Except as expressly provided in or authorized by the Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws of this corporation, all memberships shall have the same rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions.

Section 2. Qualifications of Members. The qualifications for membership in this corporation are as follows:

  1. Members shall be of the age of majority in this state.

  2. Members shall have completed a minimum of thirty hours of volunteer service.

Section 3. Admission of Members. Applicants shall be admitted to membership on making application to the Secretary or Director of the corporation.

Section 4. Fees and Dues. The shall be no fees or dues charged for membership in the corporation.

Section 5. Number of Members. There is no limit on the number of members the corporation may admit.

Section 6. Membership book. The corporation shall keep a physical or electronic record containing the name, phone number, mailing address, and email address of each Member. Termination of the membership of any Member shall be recorded in the book, together with the date of termination of such membership.

Section 7. Non-liability of members. A member of this corporation is not, as such, personally liable for the debts, liabilities, or obligations of the corporation.

Section 8. Non-transferability of memberships. No Member may transfer a membership or any right arising therefrom. All rights of membership cease upon the member’s death.

Section 9. Termination of membership. The membership of a Member shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of the following events:

  1. Upon his or her notice of such termination delivered to the president or secretary of the corporation personally or by mail or email, such membership to terminate upon the date of delivery of the notice or date of deposit in the mail.

  2. Upon his or her failing to maintain a monthly average of eight hours of volunteer service in the preceding twelve weeks, such termination to be effective 4 weeks after a written notification of insufficient volunteer service is given personally or mailed or emailed by the secretary of the corporation. A member may avoid such termination by completing sufficient volunteer service within a 4 week period following the member’s receipt of the written notification of delivery.

  3. After providing the member with reasonable written notice and an opportunity to be heard either orally or in writing, upon a determination by the Board of Directors that the Member has engaged in conduct materially and seriously prejudicial to the interests or purposes of the corporation.

Article XII

Section 1. Place of Meetings. Meetings of members shall be held at the principal office of the corporation or at such other place or places as may be designated from time to time by resolution of the board of directors.

Section 2. Regular Meetings. A regular meeting shall be held annually on the 2nd Saturday of October for the purpose of electing directors and transacting other business as may come before the meeting.  The candidates receiving the the highest number of votes up to the number of directors to be elected shall be elected. Each voting member shall cast one vote, with voting being by ballot only. The annual meeting of members for the purpose of electing directors shall be deemed a regular meeting.

If the day fixed for a regular meeting falls on a legal holiday, such meeting shall be held at the same hour and place on the next business day.

Other meetings of the general membership could be called by resolution of the board.

Section 3. Special Meetings of Members. Special meetings of members shall be called by the board of directors, the chairperson of the board or the president of the corporation, or, if different, by the persons specially authorized under the laws of this states to call special meetings of the members.

Section 4. Notice of Meetings. Unless otherwise provided by the articles of incorporation, these bylaws or provisions of law, notice stating the place, day, and hour of the meeting and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is being called, shall be delivered not less than ten (10) nor more than fifty (50) days before the date of the meeting, either personally, by mail, by email, or by telephone, or by direction of the president, or the secretary, or the persons calling the meeting, to each member  entitled to vote at such meeting. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail addressed to the member at his or her address as it appeared on the records of the corporation, with postage paid.

The notice of any meeting of members at which directors are to be elected shall also state the names of all those who are nominees or candidates for election to the board at the time of notice is given.

Whenever any notice of a meeting is required to be given to any member of this corporation under the provisions of the articles of incorporation, these bylaws or the law of this state, a waiver of notice in writing signed by the member, whether before or after the time of the meeting, shall be equivalent to the giving of such notice.

Section 5. Quorum for Meetings. A quorum shall consist of one-third of the voting members of the corporation.

Except as otherwise provided under the articles of incorporation, these bylaws or provisions of law, no business shall be considered by the members at any meeting at which the required quorum is not present, and the only motion which the chair shall entertain at such meeting is a motion to adjourn.

Section 6. Majority Action As Membership. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of voting members present in person or by proxy at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present is the act of the members, unless the articles of incorporation, these bylaws or provisions of law require a greater number.

Section 7. Voting Rights. Each member is entitled to one vote on each matter submitted to a vote by the members. Voting at duly held meetings shall be by voice vote. Election of directors, however, shall be by written ballot.

Section 8. Action by Written Ballot. Except as otherwise provided under the article of incorporation, these bylaws or provisions of law, any action which may be taken at any regular or special meeting of members may be taken without a meeting if the corporation distributes a written ballot to each member entitled to vote on the matter. The ballot shall:

1. Set forth the proposed action;

2. Provide an opportunity to specify approval or disapproval of each proposal;

3. Indicate the number of responses needed to meet the quorum requirement and,except or ballots soliciting votes for the election of directors,
state the percentage for approvals necessary to pass the measure submitted; and

4. Shall specify the date by which the ballot must be received by the corporation in order to be counted. The date set shall afford members a reasonable time within which to return the ballots to the corporation.

Ballots shall be mailed or delivered in the manner required for giving notice of membership meetings as specified in these bylaws.

Approval of action by written ballot shall be valid only when the number of votes casts by ballot within the time period specified equals or exceeds the quorum required to be present at a meeting authorizing the action, and the number of approvals equals or exceeds the number of votes that would be required to approve the action at a meeting at which the total number of votes cast was the same as the number of votes cast by ballot.

Directors may be elected by written ballot. Such ballots for the election of directors shall list the persons nominated at the time the ballots are mailed or delivered.

Section 9. Conduct of Meetings. Meetings of members shall be presided over by the chairperson of the board, or, if there is no chairperson or, in his or her absence, by the president of the corporation or, in the absence of all these persons, by a chairperson chosen by a majority of the voting members present at the meeting. The secretary of the corporation shall act as secretary of all meetings of members, provided that, in his or her absence, the presiding officer shall appoint another person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Meetings shall be governed by such procedures as may be approved from time to time by the Board of Directors, insofar as such rules are not inconsistent with or in conflict with the Articles of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or with provisions of law.

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